IG — 47373-2 GPO
KING & BAIRD, PRINTERS, 607 SANSOM STREET.
A Red Rose from the Olden Time \
A Ramble Through The Annals
ON THE BARONY OF NAZARETH,
IN THE DAYS OF THE PROVINCE:
''Tll)t Old 3nm at J^azaretf)/'
READ AT THE CENTENARY OF THE "NAZARETH INN,"
JUNE 9th, 1871,
By iMAURICE C. JONES,
OF BETHLEHEM, PHNNA.
KING & BAIRD, PRINTERS, 607 SANSOM STREET.
" JlelCaSetl antJ ^Onfi'rmetl unto the said Letitia Aubrey her
Heirs and Assigns for evermore,— but tO tJ0 IlOltJeU of John Penn
Thomas Penn and Richard Penn their Heirs and Assigns in free
and common Soccage as of the Seigniory of Windsor on gfcltjfttfl
anti paStUfi therefor to the said John Penn Thomas Penn and
Richard Penn their Heirs and Assigns ^^^lE HE!! 2li<!^S1E
on the twenty-fourth Day of June yearly if the same shall be de-
manded in full for all Services Customs and Rents."
Deed 25 Sept. 1731.
, JOHN PENN et al. to
MRS. LETITIA AUBREY
Release in Fee of 5,000 Acres of Land in Pennsilvania.
1752 — iSyi.
The Old Nazareth Inns.
Committee of Arrangements.
JUNE 9th, I 871.
PHILIP A. CREGAR.
Capt. WILLIAM MAN,
EDWARD O. SMITH,
GEORGE A. KOHLER,
WILLIAM. H. JORDAN,
RICHARD M, SHOEMAKER,
FRANK HOWELL ELLI5. •
N the occasion of a dinner at the Nazareth Inn on the 9th of June
last, — commemorative of the centennial anniversary of that no-
table house of entertainment, — Maurice C. Jones, of Bethlehem,
read a brief but highly interesting paper on its history, and on the
history of its predecessor, "The Rose." The essay met with the un-
qualified approbation of the company, and the wish being simultane-
ously expressed that it might be published at an early day, the editor
was requested to extend Dr. Jones' researches, so as to be enabled to
perfect, as nearly as possible the picture, whose forms in outline had
been so happily conceived.
Such is, in brief, the origin of "A Red Rose from the Olden Time;"
for whose historical element the reader is largely indebted to the vener-
able antiquary, Mr. Andrew G. Kern of Nazareth, and to James Heniy,
of Bolton on Lehietan, President of the Moravian Historical Society.
Bethlehem, 4th Jan. of 1872.
A Red Rose from the Olden Time,
HAT charming tract of rolling country,
rich in springs and water-courses, rich
in meadows arid rich in wheat-growing
lands, which lies in the very heart of
Northampton County, being embraced
within the limits of Upper Nazareth
township, was purchased by the Mora-
vians in the summer of 1741. Its contents, we
are told, were five thousand acres, every acre being
measured and computed according to the dimensions
of acres, mentioned and approved in and by the
statute made in the thirty-third year of the reign of
King Edward the First. After the founding of
Bethlehem, the Moravians made successive improve-
ments on this tract, — at Ephrata in 1743, at Old
a A Red Rose from tlie Olcleii Time.
Nazareth in 1744, at Gnadenthal in 1745, at Chris-
tian's Spring in 1748, and at Friedensthal in 1749;
and here they lived, somewhat after the manner of
the primitive Christians, in an Economy. Thus
happy years and halcyon days rolled on, when, in
175 1, there came orders from the head-men of the
Church in the old country, for the laying out of a
village on some eligible spot within the limits of
this princely domain, like unto the Moravian villa-
ges in Germany. Bishop Spangenberg, accordingly, se-
lected and had surveyed into a town-plot a parcel of
one hundred and sixty acres, adjacent to the north-
eastern boundary of the modern borough of Naza-
reth. This survey was commenced on the third day
of January, 1752 ; preparations were, at the same time,
set on foot for the erection of needed dwellings on
the opening of spring, and the name of Gnadenstadt
was given to the projected town. But the inhabi-
tants of Nazareth, whom it was proposed transferring
thither, could not be prevailed upon to exchange the
poetry of an Economy for the prose of town-life
and the restrictions of a municipium. Hence the
building of Gnadenstadt was indefinitely postponed
and abandoned, save that a frame-building of two
stories, which had assumed dimensions (its founda-
tion-stone having been laid on the 27th of March),
while the people of Nazareth were demurring in the
face of the head-men and the Bishop, was, some time
A Eecl Rose from the Olden Time.
after their final decision, fully completed.* This
building was the first house of entertainment on the
tract, or on " the Barony," as it was called, — in as
far as when William Penn, of Worminghurst, in the
County of Sussex, Esq., released and confirmed its
five thousand acres to his trusty friend Sir John
Fagg, for the sole use and behoof of his beloved
daughter Letitia — ^he confirmed them to him with the
privilege of erecting them into one manor, and with
the additional privilege of holding thereon court
baron and views of frank pledge for the conservation
of the peace ; — and being, as has been stated, the
first house of entertainment erected at Nazareth, and
the legitimate predecessor of the house in which we
* It should have been stated, that in addition to this " house of enter-
tainment erected for strangers and for the conveniency of the workmen,"
there was another dwelling finished in the spring of 1752. This stood
vacant until in May of 1760, when it was occupied by John George
and Mary C. Claus. In the autumn of 1761, Gottlieb Demuth (see
later in this paper) took up a lot and blocked up a house. In this way the
building of Gnadenstadt was gradually resumed, and the place grew; but
in June of 1762, it received the name of Schoeneck i. e., "Pretty Cor-
ner," and in October of the same year, divine worship (for which the in-
habitants had met in Claus's house up to that time) was first held in the
new school and parsonage. The stone church in the hamlet of Schoen-
eck, embowered so charmingly in weeping willows to the very pinnacle of
its antique belfry, was completed in 1793, and dedicated on the 20th day
of October of that year.
John George Claus, the first inhabitant of Schceneck, was born in
Alsace in 1722. He deceased in February of 1763, and his remains
were the first that were buried In the graveyard at Schoeneck.
A Red Rose from the Olden Time.
are met, it behooves us not to pass it by liglitly,
but to ponder what of its history has been rescued
from oblivion by antiquarian research.
It was in the late summer of 1752, that the
ancient caravansary was completed, and, on the 15th
day of September, it was occupied by John Frederic
Schaub, cooper, and Divert Mary, his faithful wife, —
he, the first of a blameless line of publicans.*
Standing on the very confines of barbarism, like a
beacon off some dark and stormy coast, its cheering
presence was henceforth hailed by horsemen and
packers journeying on the King's road, that led past,
and over the mountain many miles northward, to the
farms and settlements that dotted both shores of
the Delaware in the Minisinks. For almost twenty
years its doors stood invitingly open to weary trav-
ellers, who longed for surcease from the toils of the
* Mr. Schaub was born in Switzerland in 17 17. He and his wife were
one of thirty-three Moravian couples, that were brought over from
Europe, late in the Autumn of 1743, and settled at Nazareth. About 1747
he made a venture in real estate, taking up two parcels of woodland on
the Lehigh Mountain, near Bethlehem, which were patented to him by
the three Penns, in October of 1752. These he conveyed to John
Okely in December following, and thus they became part of the great
Moravian tract surrounding Bethlehem, which tract eventually embraced
upwards of 10,000 acres. In 1755, Mr. Schaub removed to Bethabara,
the first settlement made by the Moravians on their possessions in what
was then Anson County, North Carolina. He deceased at Bethany, a
neighboring settlement, in 1801.
A Red Rose from the Olden Time. 9
way, and for the rest and refreshment of an inn ;
and for almost twenty years, its hospitable roof
sheltered the Brethren, too, who came to visit their
Brethren at Nazareth.
In this way Der neue Gasthof., as it was modestly
called, grew in favor with the race of articulate men ;
and its achievements having been duly blazoned at
the lists far and near, the inn was entitled to wear a
coat-of-arms, upon which there appeared on the 6th
day of August, 1754, during the incumbency of John
F. Schaub, cooper, and Divert Mary, his wife, a full-
blown scarlet rose. And hence, and ever afterwards
it was known as De?- Gasihof xur Rose^ — Die Rose, —
THE ROSE. The origin of this floral emblem
and this floral appellation is fortunately a matter of
history. They were not bestowed on the lonely hos-
pice because its presence made the surrounding wil-
derness of scrub-oak and stunted pines to blossom
like the queen of flowers ; nor because its surcoat
was dyed in Spanish brown. They were both com-
memorative ; for when John Penn, Thomas Penn,
and Richard Penn, released to Letitia Aubrey, their
half-sister, gentlewoman, the five thousand acres that
had been confirmed to his trusty friend Sir John
Fagg, for her sole use and behoof by William Penn
of Worminghurst, in the County of Sussex, Esq., it
was done on the condition of the payment of ONE
RED ROSE, vearlv, for all services, customs and rents.
10 A Reel Hose from the Olden Time.
Soon after this important event in the annals of
the inn, a cloud began to gather along the northern
horizon of the Province, which, ere the lapse of a
twelvemonth, burst in fire and blood. The French
and Indians had taken the war-path, and were come
down upon the defenceless frontiers. Schaub and
Divert Mary, his wife, and their son Johnny (the
first child of white parents born at Nazareth), had
retired from The Rose (August 14th, 1754) ; John
Nicholas Weinland, farmer and musician, had admin-
istered its concerns from that date to the nth day
of December following, — and so it came to pass that
the fury of this Indian war fell during the incum-
bency of Albrecht Klotz, last from Tulpehocken, but
a native of Hohenlohe in the Lower Palatinate^
blacksmith, and Ann Margaret, nee Rieth, born in
Scoharie, a daughter of old Michael Rieth, of Tulpe-
hocken, his faithful wife. The following curious
document dated at Philadelphia on the 2d of August,
1755, attests that Mr. Klotz assumed the responsi-
bilities of his new trust with the full approbation
and sanction of the highest Provincial authority for
the time being, — it having been issued by the
Honorable Robert Hunter Morris, Esq., Lieutenant
Governor of the Province of Pennsylvania and the
Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex on Dela-
ware. It reads thus :
A Red Rose from the Olden Tiine. 11
" Whereas Albrecht Klotz hath been recommended unto me as
*' a sober and fit person to keep a house of entertainment, and
" being requested to grant him a license for the same, I do hereby
"license and allow the said Albrecht Klotz to keep a public
"house in the township of Lehigh* in the County of North-
" ampton, for the selling of wine, rum, punch and other spirituous
"liquors, until the loth day of August next; Provided,, he shall
" not, at any time in the said term, suffer any drunkenness, unlawful
" gaming, or any other disorders, or sell any drink to the Indians
"to debauch or hurt them; but in all things observe and practice
"all laws and ordinances of this Government to his said employ-
" ment relating.
"Given under my hand and seal-at-arms, the 2d day of August,
" in the Twenty-ninth year of our Sovereign Lord and King
" George the Second, and in the year of our Lord One Thousand
" seven hundred and fifty-five.
[L. s.] Signed ROBERT H. MORRIS."
It must here be added, that Christian and Anna
Stotz had, in April of 1755, been associated with the
Klotzes at The Rose, to preside over its bureau of
agriculture, and that Joseph, a negro from the Gold
* Lehigh township was organized by the Court in September of 1754,
and was defined as extending from the Lehigh River on the west, east-
wards along the foot of the Blue Mountain, to the " old Minisink
Road." At the same time, its adjacents from said road as far the line
of Mount Bethel, received tlie name of Plalnfield. Plainfield township
was organized in 1757. The Rose-farm, in part, at the date of the
above license lay in Lehigh, subsequently in Plainfield, and at a later day
12 A Bed Rose from the Olden Time.
Coast, was hostler at the critical juncture to which
the current of this history has drifted.
On the I St of November, 1755, sixty thousand
persons perished violently in the city of Lisbon, as
it was being shaken to its foundations by the un-
stable earth that reeled like a drunkard in his cups ;
and in the early morning of the i8th of November
of the same year, there was heard on the Barony,
with a star-lit sky overhead, a sound as of a rushing
wind and of the booming of distant siege guns, —
when lo ! the doors at The Rose swung on their
hinges, and stood open ! Thus it is written in the
book of our chronicles — and on its dusty pages it
furthermore stands recorded, that the sleepers at the
inn, on that frosty November morning, rocked in
their beds as do mariners in hammocks out at sea.
It would be presumptuous for the historian to en-
deavor to determine what was the connection between
these far distant occurrences, — so nearly synchronous
and so like in character, although, fortunately for the
inmates of The Rose, unlike in degree and in
Leaving men of science to conjecture or decide as
they please, we will proceed to state, that seven days
after these ominous forebodings, word was brought
to Nazareth of the surprise and massacre on the
Mahoning, — and on the evening of that seventh day,
upwards of sixty terrified men, women and children
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time. 13
from the adjacents north of the Barony thronged
the doorway of the Moravian inn, clamorous for
shelter and for protection from the murdering
Indians. Among these fugitives were the Clevels*
from the banks of the romantic Bushkill, and the
Stechers (whose seedling apple is in high esteem to
the present day), the Germantons, the Koehlers, the
Klases and the Kostenbaders, all from the plains of
upper Northampton, dwarf-oaked and slaty, and rich
in pheasants and stemless cypripedia.
Such was the beginning of that precipitate evacu-
ation of the frontier.6, which culminated subsequent
to the surprise at Frederic Hoeth's and the affair
at Broadhead's ; — there being on the 17th day of
the eventful month of December, 1755, according
to an official enumeration, two hundred refugees
billeted at Nazareth and Ephrata, and one hundred
at the other settlements on the tract. It was as
promiscuous an assemblage as had ever been
gathered in so short a time, embracing men of di-
verse nationalities and creeds, and women of diverse
tongues. There were the Eisenmanns, the Geislys,
the Hecks, the Hesses, the Heises, the Heimanns,
* Francis and George Clevel, sons of Francois and Louise Clevel, n6e
Frache, and grandsons of French Protestants who had fled from Dau-
phiny to the Palatinate, after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes,
immigrated to Pennsylvania with their widowed mother in the autumn
14 «^ Red Rose from the Olden Thne.
the Hoeths, the Hoffmans, the Hueds, the Kunk-
els, the Schielses, the Serfasses, the Sylvases, and the
Wiesers, all from Contented Valley; the Culvers,
and the Joneses from McMichael's Creek; the
Brevvsters, the Countrymans and the Hillmans, from
Dansbury (but last from 'Sopus), and many others,
whose names in questionable orthography have been
preserved for us and remotest posterity by some
painstaking recorder of those stirring times.
In this way, during the winter of 1755 and 1756,
did The Rose exchange the character of an inn, for
that of a city of refuge. But it was also for a
time a military post, and suffered from military
occupation. This occupation fell in the interval
between the 26th of November, 1755, and the 20tli
of February, 1756, and some of its incidents are
the following :
In the evening of the aforementioned 26th of
November, a company of Saucon rangers, in com-
mand of Capt. Laubach, halted at the inn, and
bivouacked for the night. Having scoured the neigh-
boring woods next day, on receiving intelligence of
the enemy's presence in the gap of the mountain,
they broke camp at dusk, and when the moon had
risen, set out in pursuit. Meanwhile, two detach-
ments of mounted men had arrived. These, how-
ever, failed to recognize any necessity for their
presence, and so, after having dined, departed. On
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time. 15
the 14th of December, Capt. Solomon Jennings*
and Capt. Doll, each with a company passed The
Rose en route for the scene of the late disaster at
Hoeth's, under orders to search for and bury the dead.
Five days later, on their return from this dangerous
anabasis, they posted Lieut. Brown with eighteen men
at the inn, for the present defence of the Moravian
settlements ; and that very night, there were indica-
tions of savages lying perdu within gunshot of its
doors. Capt. Craig, at the head of a detachment
of Ulster Scots from their seats on the Calisuck,
arrived on the 21st, in order to assure himself of
the safety of his Moravian neighbors, who, it was
rumored, had been cut off by the enemy. Next fol-
lowed Capts. Trump's and Aston's companies of
Provincials from the seat of justice in a remote
corner of the county, nearest the Jerseys, — -their desti-
* The same Solomon Jennings, who, at .sunrise on the 19th of Sep-
tember 1737, had set out with Edward Marshall and James Yeates
from John Chapman's corner at Wrightstown, to walk for a wager,
and to walk off land for the Penns 5 but who, on arriving at a point
two miles north from the Tohickon, about eleven o'clock of that
memorable morning, desisted from the contest. Falling back into the
curious crowd that followed in the wake of the three walkers, Jennings
parted company at the Fords of Lehigh, striking into the path that
led to his farm lying two miles higher up on the south bank of the
river. He deceased on the 17th of February, 1757, and his grave is
pointed out to this day near the site of the old homestead, on land
that in 1736 had been included in the Proprietaries' Manor of Fermor,
or The Drylands.
16 A Red Rose from the Olden Time.
nation being Smithfield, and their errand the erection
of a block-house. This was on the 26th of De-
cember, and the last movement of the military past
The Rose in 1755.
But in 1756, the halls of the hostelry again
echoed the tramp of martial feet, during the occupa-
tion of the Nazareth tract by Capt. Isaac Wayne
of Franklin's command, between the 5th and the
15th days of January. "You are upon your return
from Depui's," writes the sage to his Captain, " to
halt with your company at Nazareth, and there to
remain till further orders, taking care all the while
to keep your men in good order, and to post them
in such a manner as most effectually to guard and
secure that place against any attack. Furthermore,
you are to inform the men of your company that
they shall receive a reward from the Government
of forty pieces of eight for every Indian they shall
kill and scalp in any action they may have with
them, which I hereby promise to pay upon pro-
ducing the scalps." In the ensuing weeks, there
was constant intercourse between Nazareth and the
men of war in Smithfield, detachments of Trump's
men coming down from Fort Hamilton to convoy
supplies of bread, baked statedly in the large family
oven on the Barony, to their hungry comrades.
But the 17th of February, was, perhaps, the most
memorable day in the history of the military oc-
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time. 17
cupation of The Rose, and in the experience of
Albrecht Klotz, its sorely-tried landlord ; for on
that day he was necessitated to billet sixty soldiers
at Nazareth, who had been clamorous for bed and
board at the already crowded inn. What was the
occasion of this conflux of the sons of Mars has
not yet transpired; but hereafter their calls at The
Rose became less frequent, and gradually, though
not uninterruptedly, its history returned into the
peaceful channel in which it had flowed in the days
of John F. Schaub and Divert Mary, his wife.
On the 5th of April, 1756, Andrew Schober, (born
in November of 17 10, near Ollmutz, in Moravia,)
mason, and Hedwig Regina, his wife, were installed
at The Rose, as successors to Albrecht and Margaret
Klotz. The worthy couple had been brought over
in the "Little Strength," Capt. Nicholas Garrison,
commander, in November of 1743, and were among
the first Moravians settled at Nazareth. In the
second week of their novitiate a very destructive
hail-storm swept over a belt of country in North-
ampton, including the Rose-farm, — and, as the
meteorological display set in from the north, the
unshuttered lights in the gable, looking to that
cardinal point of the compass, were completely
wrecked. Hartmann and Catharine Verdries suc-
ceeded Christian and Anna Stotz at the head of
the bureau of agriculture on the fourth day of June,
IS A Red Rose from the Olden Time.
and not three months after this change, Mr. Schober
retired from the inn. He resumed his trowel, as-
sisted in pointing the walls of Nazareth Hall which
he had in part erected, removed to Bethlehem,
superintended the erection of the buckwheat mill;*
and deceased at that place in July of 1792. Gott-
lieb, a son, born at Bethlehem in 1756, removed
to Bethabara, North Carolina, in his boyhood, and
deceased at Salem, in that state, in 1838. The
late Samuel L. Shober, of the firm of Shober &
Bunting, of Philadelphia, was a grandson of Andrew
Schober of The Rose.
Thus we have come to the administration of Hart-
mann Verdries, and Catharine his faithful wife. Of
it we know the following:
On the 20th of August, 1756, articles of agree-
ment were drawn up and executed by George Klein,
of Bethlehem, yeoman, in behalf of the Moravian
* The buckwheat mill at Bethlehem, built in 1765 and 1766, was the
master-piece of an ingenious millwright, Christian Christensen, by name.
It was originally a combination of mills, there being works for grinding
flax seed and pressing oil, for peeling barley, spelt and millet, for split-
ting peas, for stamping and rubbing hemp, and for grinding oat meal,
and bark for the tannery. Subsequently there was a snuff mill inserted,
and a run of stones for buckwheat. The buckwheat flour gradually
gained an enviable reputation for quality, whereupon " Bethlehem Buck-
wheat Flour," was annually thrown into the market in quantities
which far exceeded the working capacity of tlic modest mill in any
A Red Rose from the Olden Time. 19
Society, of the one part, and Hartmann Verdries,
last from the same place, miller, of the other part,
in virtue of which agreement the latter assumed
the responsibilities of landlord at The Rose, in
tenancy under the former. Hence it was in order,
that the license for the year ending with the
1 8th day of June, 1758, as well as the licenses
for all other years pending the duration of said
covenant should have been granted to Mr. Klein.
The above specified license read thus :
"At a Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace held
"at Easton, for the County of Northampton, the 21st day of
"June, I757j upon the petition of George Klein for a license to
"sell beer and cyder by small measure in the township of Plain-
" field, the said Court do allow and license the said George Klein
"to sell beer and cyder by small measure, until the 1 8th day of
"June next ensuing, — he observing the laws and ordinances of
*'this Province, which are and shall be made relating to retailers
** of beer and cyder by small measure."
From the tenor of this license, it is inferable that
a restriction had been laid by some one and for
some reason not yet ascertained, upon the sale at
The Rose of beverages indicating by hydrometric
measurement a percentage of alcohol greater than is
ordinarily present in either beer or cider.
Mr. Verdries, the new landlord at our inn, Is a
personage of some celebrity in early Moravian his-
tory. We find him superintending * The Crown,'
20 A Red Rose from the Olden Time.
(that stood in Saucon township, opposite Bethle-
hem,) in November of 1747, a date which carries us
back to almost fabulous times. There and then he
associated with men like Anthony Gilbert, Jost Vol-
lert, and Adam Schaus. Next he was appointed
miller at the Friedensthal mill,* which ground its
first grist on the 20th of August, 1750, — and sub-
sequently at the Bethlehem mill, which went up in
flames in a green old age in January of 1869.
* In January of 1750, the Moravians commenced the erection of a
grist-mill for the convenience of their people at Nazareth, on a newly
puichased parcel of land, watered by a, branch of Lefevre's Creek (now
the Bushkill), touching the Barony on the northeast, and adjacent to
lands of Johannes Lefevre. It was part of a great tract of 5,000 acres
granted by William Penn in October of 1681 to Lawrence Growdon,
then of the parish of St. Austell, in the hundred of Powder, County
of Cornwall. By him it was conveyed in 1707 to his grandson Law-
rence Growdon, Jr., then of the parish of St. Merryn, in the hundred
of Pyder, County of Cornwall. Growdon, Jr., conveyed 550 acres of
this great tract to William Allen, of Philadelphia, merchant, in August
of 1740, and from Allen, the above mentioned parcel of 324 acres,
" situate on branches of Lehietan," was purchased by Henry Antes,
for the use of the Moravians. In April of 1751, the improvement (up
to that time called simply "the new plantation on the kill,") received
the name of Friedensthal. It was stockaded in the summer of 1756
with a large but slight stockade, about 400 feet one way, and 250 the
other, with log-houses at the corners for bastions. In 1767 the Mora-
vians let, and in 1771 they disposed of the property. On the erection
of the present stone mill (Mann's Mill) by Mr. Jacob Eyerly in 1796,
its predecessor was converted into a dwelling, which, it is said, was
demolished about 1S35, its stones and timbers in part being conveyed
to Stockertown, and there built up a second time into a mill.
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time. 21
Thence he was summoned to The Rose, over whose
destinies he presided for upwards of three years.
Some of the facts and incidents belonging to this
eventful triennium are the following :
Among the refugees from Smithfield, residing at
Nazareth, was one Francis Jones, who had fled with
the Culvers, on the nth of December, 1755. His
daughter Polly, as is well known, united with the
Moravians, and was thereupon admitted into the
Single Sisters' House, at Bethlehem. Jones was an
inmate of The Rose as late as the 17th of August,
1756. Returning to Smithfield, he entered the
Province service, and in January of 1758 we find
him in Capt. Nelson's command, posted at Dietz's*
near the Wind Gap.
On the 31st December, 1756 there were thirteen
souls billeted at The Rose and in a small log
* Like many other German names occurring in colonial records, this
one of Diet% is almost completely masked in the orthography it has
received at English hands. It is variously written Teets, ("Ensign
Sterling with eleven men posted at Wind Gap, Teets' house" — Deedts
("Capt. Garraway with twenty-seven men at Deedts' house") — and
Teads ("Lieut. Hyndshaw at Teads' block-house.") Lewis Gordon of
Easton, who in December of 1763 was in command of an independent
company, was ordered by the Governor to take post at Hellers, late
'Tweets' Gap. It was therefore about 1760, that the Hellers came into
possession of the well known tavern-stnnd in Plainfield township, south
of the Gap, on the old Wilkesbarre turnpike, (now Stotz's) — which for
almost a full century bore their name.
A Red Rose from the Olden Time.
house on the farm. Ten of these were refugees
from Allemaengel, on the confines of Egypt. In
addition to one Gottlieb Demuth's entire family,
there were several Volcks, — among these David Volck.
It was he who in 1760 swept chimneys on the
Barony ; but growing inconveniently corpulent, after
having initiated several boys into the mysteries of the
black art, he was advised to resign in their favor.
At seven o'clock on the morning of the 5th of
July, 1757, the remains of Susan Wickel, maid-ser-
vant at Mr. Verdries', were conveyed under an armed
escort from The Rose to the old graveyard in the
woods, for burial.
In the next place it behooves us to advert briefly
to two phenomena of celestial origin which were
observed at The Rose, as well as elsewhere, in the
summer of 1757. The one was a total eclipse of
the moon on the 30th of July ; the other a total
eclipse of the sun on the 14th of August follow-
ing. Pursuant to orders from headquarters, Mr.
Verdries took the precaution on the last mentioned
day to house the cattle in his keeping, before the ob-
scuration should have shrouded them, their instincts,
and all things else in bewildering darkness. But the
patriarch of the herd, too old to be lured into durance
by the sprinkling of salt, continued at large, heighten-
ing by his lamentations the terrors of the awful gloom.
It is generally known that Owen Rice, who
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time. 23
had arrived on the " Catharine," Capt. Thomas
Gladman, commander, in June of 1742, and who
returned to England in 1754, (he deceased at
Gomersal, wapentake of Morley, West Riding ^of
the County of York, in 1788), set out the first
orchard at Nazareth. This he did in April of 1745.
Others emulating him in so important and so en-
tirely disinterested a labor of love, the farms on
the tract were ere long embowered in apple trees —
and the trees thriving, cider was pressed on the
Barony for the first time in August of 1755. In
September of 1757 the trees hung full, — all grafted
fruit — and there was promise of a large ingathering.
But the apples were ripening in lawless times, and
it soon appeared that unless some positive means
were taken to check the depredations committed on
these Hesperian gardens, little of the goodly yield
would fall to the share of those to whom it rightly
belonged. Hence the following " Caution " was dis-
played in the tap-room at The Rose.
" This is to notify whom it may concern, that in these uncer-
" tain times, the watch will set their dogs on, or, if need be,
"fire upon all persons, whether white or Indian, who shall be
"found trespassing in the orchards at Nazareth, Friedenstlial, The
" Rose, Gnadenthal and Christian's Spring."
It was argued that the warning would be most
likely to catch the eyes of offenders at The Rose;
but to make a sure thing of it, duplicates of the
2^ A Bed Rose from the Olden Time,
ordinance were posted at the mill, and in the smith-
shop at the Spring.
There is a waif of Provincial history, which claims
our consideration at this point of the narrative. On
the 1 6th of September of the above mentioned year
1*757, while one Joseph Keller (who brought his
butter to the Bethlehem market as early as 1746,
receipting payment for the same with a boldly drawn
J. K.) was assisting his neighbors in plowing, three
Indians surprised his farm-house, which stood about
five miles north by east from Nazareth in Plain-
field township, and carried off his wife and sons.
Intelligence of this irruption of Ishmaelites having
been duly brought to Bethlehem, and communicated
to Tadeuskundt, the Delaware king, he, the king,
despatched three of his Indians and two whites to
Keller's, to ascertain whether any of his subjects had
been concerned in the high-handed outrage. As their
way led past The Rose, Justice Horsfield of Beth-
lehem very considerately furnished the five with a
curt letter of recommendation to its worthy host,
as follows :
"To Mr. Hartmann Verdries, at The Rose, near Nazareth:
"Pray let the bearers, Jacob Volck and Levi Jung, and three
*• Indians have such, refreshments as is needful ; but don't let them
" have much liquor, and send me an account of what they receive
" that I may charge it.
Bethlehem, i8th September, 1757.
A Red Rose from the Olden Time. 25
Thus the Province became indebted to our inn
to the amount of ten shillings and nine pence,—
the voucher for said indebtedness being couched in
these words :
"Province of Pennsilvania, Dr:
" To Sundries delivered at Nazareth Tavern to Jacob Volcic,
"Lewis Jung and three Indians, who was sent by Tadeuskundt
" to Joseph Keller's place to satisfy him of the truth of Keller's
" wife and children being taken captive, viz. :" .
"Sept. 1 8.
To victuals and drink,
" 2" peck of oats.
" victuals and drink,
" J peck of oats,
Altogether different in character, though forsooth
a record of blood, is the following item of particu-
lar history. In December of 1757 the residents of
the. adjacents of Nazareth were duly notified, that
such of them as desired to be bled, (it was in a
time when venesection was in vogue) should no
Ipnger repair to Bethlehem to Dr. Otto, nor to the
A Red Rose from the Olden Time.
room of Joseph Miller, practitioner of physic, in
Nazareth Hall,* as had heretofore been done to the
annoyance of the household; — but instead, should
rendezvous at The Rose, where said Joseph Miller,
practitioner of physic, would within certain hours
* Nazareth Hall, designed for the residence of Count Zinzendorf, was
brought under roof in less than five months, to wit : in the interval
between the 3d of May and the 24th of September, 1755. As at the
erection of the Tower of Babel, so at the building of this goodly-
structure, the workmen spoke in diverse tongues, there being English-
men, Welshmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Bohemians, Danes and a native
of the Guinea Coast among the industrious company. But there was
no discord, nor did any casualty attend the rapid construction of the
fortress-like walls, braced with ponderous girders of heart-of-oak.
The Indian war, however, interrupted the work in the autumn of 1755,
so that a full year elapsed before the completion of the chapel, which
was dedicated on the 13th November, 1756. In this chapel the Mora-
vians at Nazareth worshipped for almost a century.
But Count Zinzendorf failed to visit his American brethren a second
time, and the house was accordingly converted to other uses. On the
Z7th of November, 1756, David and Regina Heckewelder (the parents
of John Heckewelder, missionary among the Indians), and George
Volck and his family, refugees from Allemaengel, occupied rooms in
the unfinished building. They were the first tenants. The apartments
on the second floor having been completed in April of 1757, Joseph
Miller, M. D. and Verona his wife (imported in the Irene in May of
1749), took possession of several, and on the 30th of June, Bishop
Spangenberg and his wife Mary, of others. Gov. Denny rode up from
Easton on the 19th October, 175S, specially to inspect the majestic
structure. A school for sons of Moravian parents was commenced in
the house in June of 1759. The "Boarding School for Young Gen-
tlemen at Nazareth Hall," dates back to the 3d of October, 1785.
A Red Rose from the Olden Time. 27
on certain days of every month, give audience in
the "great room," to as many as desired to consult
him professionally in the vital matter of venesec-
On the 1 2th of April, 1758, the inn was in
imminent danger of being consumed by a "bush-
fire," which swept down from the adjacent . barrens,
under a stiff north-wester; — and on the 28th of the
month, we find the brothers Francis and George
Clevel, with their families, a fourth time refugees,
under the shelter of its protecting wings.
Hartmann and Catharine Verdries and their infant
daughter, Ann Rosina, were the sole occupants of
the house on the last day of 1758. Three months
later they closed their administration of its concerns.
Of Mr. Verdries' subsequent history, we know noth-
ing, save that in 1760 he was a second time miller
at Friedensthal ; that while there his son Lewis was
born, 17th January, 1760, and that a grandson, Peter
Verdries, was an eminent classical teacher in .Phila-
delphia between 181 5 and 1825.
The sixth landlord at The Rose in the succession,
was Ephraim Culver, late from Lower Smithfield,
miller, — but a native of Connecticut, — having been
born on the 30th July, 17 17, in the town of
Lebanon, in that Government. Mr. Culver was
installed at the inn, as near as we can ascertain,
about the time of the vernal equinox of 1759.
^8 .A Red Rose from the Olden Time.
Together with his wife Elizabeth, m. n. Smith,
whom he had married in " The Oblong," he con-
ducted the affairs of the now historic house for
almost six long years. Of his life antecedent to
that epoch, it affords us much pleasure, in view
of his importance in the annals of The Rose,
to be able to state the following particulars. In
1753 he left Connecticut, removed with his family
to Smithfield, and settled upon a small glebe he
had purchased of Daniel Broadhead. On this site,
now in the centre of the borough of Strouds-
burgh, he erected a grist-mill, (its wheel was
turned by the waters of Mc Michael's Creek) and
looked forward, no doubt, to years of peaceful
industry — and then retirement from business and
rest in the evening of life. But this prospect
was rudely marred when Mr. Culver on the nth
of December, 1755, saw a cloud of smoke ascend
from the site of his house and mill, as he was
fleeing with wife and children before the destroy-
ing Indians. With others of his neighbors he
sought a friendly asylum at Nazareth. There, ere
long, he united with the Moravians — there he in-
dentured his son Ephraim (who deceased at Schoen-
eck in September of 1804) to the miller,'^ — there
he lost his daughter Sarah in May of 1756 (she
lies buried in the old "Indian Graveyard,") — and
there was his home until he was tendered the posi-
A Red Rose from the Olden Time. 29
tion of landlord at " The Crown," in October of
1756. Mr. Culver's eventful administration of the
affairs of that ancient hostelry, fills a leaf in the
book of Colonial history. It fell in those years in
which Tadeuskundt and his hangers-on were con-
stantly on the wing between Fort Allen and Easton,
and Easton and Fort Allen — playing at " toss and
catch" with Governor Denny and his men of state,
or beguiling them at numberless treaties and con-
ferences by soft words and the music of Indian
oratory, to hope for peace, — when there was war.
And ever and anon would these ghastly, gaunt and
ominous birds light in a flock at The Crown, in-
vade the sanctity of the landlord's private apart-
ments, as well as the tap-room and the larder, and
clamor for victuals and drink in guttural Minsi and
harsh-sounding Nanticoke. They would come at all
hours of the day, and even the midnight air was
known to sound with the rushing of their wings.
Thus the landlord was sorely tried. But he found
his barbaric customers as full of whims also as they
were importunate. There was no compound or de-
coction current in that day among the whites, but
what was called for by these thirsty Indians. Wit-
ness the unreasonable demands of Peepy and Mon-
tour, two runners, who, before setting out on a dis-
tant mission in January of 1757, indulged in diverse
pints and half-pints of wine, in quarts of cider, in
30 A Reel Rose frovv the Olden Time.
drams and hot drams, in mim* and in rum, — and
departed only after having come into possession of
"a quart of rum and ye bottle." Such was the school
in which Mr. Culver was disciplined in the lesser
arts of his calling ; while occasional intercourse
with men like Conrad Weisser, Capt. Jacob Arndt,
Hugh Crawford, and George Croghan, — and with
Moses Tattamy, Paxanosa, and French Margaret, —
Indian kings and queens, furnished him with a
knowledge of the world and mankind, such as
enabled him to conduct the affairs of The Rose
acceptably during the six years of his incumbency.
From its unusual length it may very naturally be
argued, that its current flowed smoothly in a chan-
nel unruffled by rift or riffle. This was the case,
save in the autumn of 1763, when a second war
with the Indians was imminent, and cismontane
Northampton again suffered from hostile invasion.
In April of 1763, William Edmonds, a native
of Coleford in the parish of Newland, hundred of
St. Briavell's, county of Gloucester, leather-dresser,
f '■ ~—- •
*Mim, abbreviated from mimbo — a drink prepared from rum, water
and loaf-sugar, as appears from the following " rates in Taverns," fixed
by the Justices of York County, Pennsylvania, in January of 1752,
" for the protecting of travellers from the extortions of inn-holders."
I qt. mimbo, made of West India rum and loaf, . . 10 d.
I " " " " New England rum and loaf, . 9
Carter & Glossbrenner's History of York County, York, 1834.
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time. 31
(since 1742 attached to the Moravians), became an
inmate of The Rose, prior to taking charge of a
store which was in course of erection a few rods
south from the inn on the Minisink road. On the
completion of this place of traffic the hostejry as-
sumed the character of a mart ; but especially in the
interval between 1765 and 1772, when the Moravian
Indians from Wyalusing (Bradford county), and
others from places as remote as Sheshequin,
Shamunk and Owege, came to the store to barter
skins and wooden ware for strouds and half-thicks,
and powder and lead. Mr. Edmonds relinquished
his position at The Rose in 1772 — was appointed
shop-keeper in the village of Nazareth, and deceased
there in September of 1786.
Several allusions having been made in the course
of this narrative to the Rose-farm, it may be well
to dispossess the reader of any erroneous precon-
ception in reference to its extent. It was never
more than a small glebe, with sufficiency of arable
land and meadow to supply the house with bread
and a few cows with pasture. Would any one,
however, be fully informed in respect to the details
of its agricultural department, he may consult the
annual assessments of the inn for County and
Province taxes still extant, or the following inven-
tory. This affiDrds us also a glance into the very
penetralia of the goodly house.
A Red Rose from the Olden Time.
INVENTORY OF THE STOCK IN THE ROSE INN.
31st May, 1764, amounting to 64 £ 15 s. yd.
20 bu. of rye, .
15 bu, of oats, .
2 bu. of buckwheat,
150 lbs. of pork, .
10 lbs. of butter,
15 lbs. of tallow, .
6 lbs. of lard, .
32 galls, of soft soap,
10 lbs. of cheese, ,
3 15 —
2 hogsheads of cider, .
10 galls, of TeneriiFe,*
28 galls. Barbadoes Rum,
23 galls, of New Eng-
land Rum, . .
15 galls, of metheglin, .
17 yds. linen of flax, .
10 yds. linen of tow, .
23- yds. of cloth.
3 19 92
* Philip C. Bader, (who deceased at Nazareth in March of 1797)
in a rhythmical narrative descriptive of the incidents of his voyage to
America in the autumn of 1751, sings at large of the peak of
Teyde on Tenerifte, irt the shadow of whose cone ripened the
generous wine that was quaffed at The Rose.
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time. 33
;£ S. d. £ s. d.
J load of hay, ig —
3 cows, @ ^4 los. 13 xo —
2 calves, . . . . @ los. i — —
2 hogs, I
£ s. d.
J lb of powder, I 6
I iron kettle received for a debt, . , i 26
Sundry small outstanding debts, . ... 11 2 7
Cash on hand, 4 8 —
2 acres sowed in oats^ . @ 12s. i 4
4 bu. of oats sowed in, @ 2s. 8
\ acre sowed in flax, ...... 5
i bu. of flax seed, I
i acre of Indian corn, 12
64 15 7
The 4th of April, 1765, was perhaps the most
memorable day in the incumbency of Ephraim
Culver at the inn. In the forenoon of that day
the precincts of the house were suddenly thronged
by a motley crowd of Indians, — men, women, and
children, whose appearance and equipments indicated
them to be a people migrating in search of new
homes. They were the Moravian Indians, lately
returned from confinement in the Barracks at Phila-
delphia, — en route for Wyalusing. Thus far they
S4 «^ •^'^f^ Rose fvoiiv the Olden Time.
had journeyed under escort, and protected by the
strong arm of the law ; and here they took sad
leave of the people among whom their lot had been
cast for upwards of twenty years.
Two weeks after this event, Mr. Culver retired
from The Rose, having accepted the appointment of
landlord at The Crown, for a second time. This
he managed until the decease of his wife in 1771. In
April of 1772, he became a resident of Schoeneck,
and soon after married Mary C. Claus. Mr. Culver
deceased at Bethlehem in March of 1775.
John and Mary Catharine Lischer were installed
at The Rose on the 20th of April 1765, and ad-
ministered its concerns until the 30th of March
1772. Mr. Lischer was the last in the succession
of its landlords. With his retirement on the 30th
of March 1772, it ceased to be an inn; for in
1 77 1 the house and its adjacents, (which at that
time embraced a tract of two hundred and forty
acres, touching the head-line of the Barony and
situate in Plainfield township,) were sold by the
Moravian Society to Dorst Alleman, — a native of the
Canton of Berne, Switzerland, but prior to 1761 an
inhabitant of Lancaster County, yeoman, — and con-
firmed to him by indenture bearing date of 17th
It was Alleman, therefore, who plucked the rose
from the old ancestral tree.
A Red Rose from the Olden Time. 35
He and Verona his wife, took possession on the
I St of April, 1772. Yet even in its decadence the
goodly house was honored ; for in September
of 1772, Governor John Penn, son of Richard
Penn, son of William Penn by Hannah Callowhill,
passed a week under its hospitable roof, while re-
laxing from the cares of state in shooting grouse
on the neighboring barrens. Mr. Watson tells us
that the Governor " was in person of the middle
size, reserved in manners and very near sighted ;"
whence it is inferable that the slaughter of grouse, as
far as he was individually concerned, was only moder-
ate ; nevertheless, his Honor, being an English gen-
tleman of the old school, may have relished the sport
and have been benefited, too, by the country air and
Dorst Alleman deceased at his mansion, late The
Rose, in March of 1803.
Benedict Benade* of Plainfield township, painter
and potter, sole executor of the last will and tes-
tament of Dorst Alleman, confirmed the Rose tract to
Mattes Alleman, of the aforesaid township, yeoman,
only son and residuary legatee of the aforesaid
Dorst, by indenture bearing date of 28th December
■^Benedict Benade, horn in Upper Lusatia in September of 1752, im-
migrated in 1793 — married Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Dorst Al-
leman, and deceased in Filetown in 1841.
36 A Bed Hose from the Olden Thne.
1803: Mattes Alleman deceased in December of
1819. His executors, Molly Alleman and John A.
Edmonds,* some time after, exposing seventy-eight
acres of the original tract (including The Rose)
for sale at vendue or public outcry, these were
purchased by George Gold, of Bushkill township,
yeoman, for thirteen hundred and twelve dollars and
sixty-seven cents, and confirmed to him by inden-
ture bearing date of 17th April, 1826.
George Gold and Rosina his wife, conveyed the
premises to David Gold, of Bushkill township, yeo-
man, in February of 1831. By David Gold and
Mary his wife, they were conveyed to Gideon
Haupt, of Bushkill township, yeoman, in April of
Mrs. Louisa Reinheimer, a daughter of Gideon
Haupt, the present holder, came into possession of
the property in April of 1865.
In conclusion, we would state, that in the sum-
mer of 1858 the olden hostelry was demolished;
but the gables of the tenant-house which stands on
its site, are covered with boards that survived the
wreck; — sole remaining, but alas! withered leaves shed
from the Red Rose that once bloomed on the
Barony of Nazareth.
* A son of William Edmonds. Born on Long Island in May of
1743, deceased in Plalnfield township in April of 1824.
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time. 37
Our personal recollections of the historic house
extend over the period of time usually allotted to
two generations of mortal men. in that long in-
terval it suffered no perceptible change. It failed
even to g-row older. From first to last it was the
same tall, spectral-looking mansion, clad in a coat
of faded Spanish brown ; — standing no longer on
the great highway between the capital of a Prov-
ince and its frontiers, but on a by-way in a secluded
and forsaken corner of what v/as once part of the
Barony of Nazareth. Its barns were rickety, its
cider-press was ancient, its fruit-trees were mossy ;
and yet from first to last they suffered no percepti-
ble change — they failed to grow older. In men's
minds the house was vaguely associated with a long-
past Indian age. They spoke of its having been
beleaguered, and pointed to the knot-holes in the
shrunken weather-boarding as the work of balls from
savage rifles. They spoke of its precincts as having
been the homes of successive generations of red men,
and testified to their presence with arrow-heads and
tomahawks of stone, gleaned from the neighboring
fields. And there were even some who stated that
the old Red Rose had been planted on haunted
ground ; and down to the year of its demolition,
there might be heard in the time of the Septem-
ber moon, as soon as its beams began to silver
the veil of mist that hangs nightly over the milk-
38 A Red Rose froTtv the Olden Time.
house In the meadow, the voice of a horseman on
the upland, chiding his loitering steed in an unknown
tongue ; — it being the spirit of the bold Minsi from
Peoqueahlin, carrying off the stolen daughter of Tagh-
tapasset, the Delaware king of Welagamika.*
Here end the chronicles of The Rose.
* The name of the Indian town that stood on the^ Barony of Naza-
reth, on its first occupation by the Moravians, in the spring of 1740.
There is a draft in the room of the Moravian Historical Society, en-
titled " A Draft of Nazareth and adjacent lands," drawn in March of
1757, on which the site of the old Indian town is marked on the
south side of the run irrigating the meadows that lie north by east
•from the " Whitefield House," — perhaps thirty rods east from the "old
Minisink road." The word Welagamika is compounded from <zvhe-lik,
and ha-ga-mi-ka, words in the Unami Delaware, signifying, the best of
A Red Rose from the Olden Time. 39
The Old Inn at Nazareth.
The house in which we are met on this memorial
day, comes to us from that period in the history
of the Moravians, in which they began to assimilate
with the other elements of the population that had
taken root in the Prgvince, and that were crowding
them in their exclusive settlements. The Economy
at Nazareth was dissolved in 1764. This led to
many changes ; the most important of which were
the concentration of their people on fewer farms,
and the subsequent founding of the village, now the
borough, of Nazareth. This was laid out on a parcel
of six hundred acres of land, situate between what
was henceforth called Old Nazareth (its gigantic
tile-roofed barn stands to the present day)^ — and
Nazareth Hall, in January of 1771. The first dwell-
ing was completed before the close of that year.
But a village without an inn, it was argued, would
be Hamlet without the ghost, and ill equipped for
the struggle for existence, and hence preparations
were made in due time for the erection of the in-
dispensable appendage. These were so far completed
as to admit of the first layer of welUhewn hickory
Jl,0 A Reel Rose from the Olden Time.
logs being put down, on the 5th day of August of
the last mentioned year. Day by day the work of
blocking-up progressed under the hands of the
young men from the Economy at Christian's
Spring;* the house was brought under roof, and
during the winter of 1771 and 1772, the details of
its interior were developed in accordance with the
architect's design. In the spring of the last men-
tioned year it was occupied. But before passing
on to a review of the administration of its affairs,
we would submit the followino- statement of the cost
at which the hostelry was erected. It is dated 31st
January, 1772, and reads thus :
£. s. d.
I. For work done by the Economy at Christian's
Spring, amounting to, . . . . . . 136 2 il
II. For work done by, and board provided for
workmen, from elsewhere, amounting to, . . 209 11 10
For bricks &c., . . . . . . . 124 3 6
Total, 469 18 3
The public house at Nazareth, erected and com-
pleted at this outlay of pounds, shillings and pence,
Pennsylvania currency, is described by a contempo-
rary writer as having been " a rather murky-looking
"^This Economy dated back to December of 1749, It was dissolved
A Red Rose from the Olden Time. Jj.1
tenement;" but in course of time it was improved,
enlarged, and ultimately renovated. In fact it passed
through all the phases incident to inns that revolve
acceptably around the patronage and favor of a fickle
but discriminating public.
On the 30th of March, 1772, John Lischer, a
native of Hilzhof, margraviate of Wittgenstein,
farmer, and Mary Catharine, m. n. Loesch, a
daughter of George Loesch of Tulpehocken, his
wife, were installed at the inn, in the capacity of
landlord and landlady. Mr. Lischer had immigra-
ted early in life, and settled in Oley. From there
he removed to Bethlehem in 1743. In October of
1753, he accompanied a colony of young men, sent
thence to make a settlement on the newly purchased
" Moravian tract," in western North Carolina. We
next find him discharging the duties of an express-
rider between Bethlehem and that distant point.
One October morning in 1758, while Mr. Lischer
and a comrade were returning from Philadelphia,
whither they had been to market, they and their
team were impressed in the Province service ; and
so , it came to pass that before the close of a week,
he had loaded up salt, and was en route for Rays-
town (Bedford), where Genl. Forbes was collecting a
formidable force for the expulsion of the French
from the country of the Ohio. Mr. Lischer married
in 1759. -^^ 1762, he was appointed landlord at
Jj.^ A lied Rose from the Olden Time.
The Crown, and subsequently, as has been stated,
at The Rose. His wife was yet in her 'teens,
when far into the night of the 29th of May, 1745,
she assisted her mother in Tulpehocken in finishing
a tent for Bishop Spangenberg, who was on the
morrow to set out for Onondaga. Having been
reared in the school of Moravian housewifery, she
was privileged to lay the first stone in that pile
which has since been growing and which commemo-
rates the good cheer that has always been dispensed
at the Nazareth Inn.
Mr. Lischer deceased in May of 1782, and was
buried in the beautiful cemetery on the hill, which
his hands had assisted in adorning.
John Michael Moehring, born in September of
1739, at Hirschberg in Voigtland, farmer, impor-
ted in the good ship Hope, Capt. Christian Jacob-
sen, in September of 1761, was the second landlord
of the inn. He succeeded Mr. Lischer in March
of 1775; but finding the duties of his position too
onerous for one, he wisely sought a helpmate, and
choosing Elizabeth Rauschenberger, he was married to
her on the 30th of April following.
Two days before that important event in his life,
an affair of importance in the life of the American
people had occurred at Lexington. This and its
long and tedious chain of consequences, link for
link, afforded motives of conversation at the Naza-
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time. J^S
reth Inn (as well as at all other inns) for the re-
mainder of Mr. Moehring's administration ; and
when he retired from the house at whose head he
had stood for nine eventful years, it no longer owed
allegiance to King George the Third, and the
Province had become a free and independent State.
Mr. Moehring deceased at Nazareth in April of
1796. He left no issue.
On the 19th of March, 1784, Owen Rice, and Eliza-
beth, nee Eyerly, his wife, assumed the management
of the inn. Mr. Rice was a son of the Owen
Rice who had set out the first orchard on the
Barony, and was born in the city of New York, in
August of 1751. During his incumbency the house
gradually acquired a wide-spread reputation, as on the
3d of October, 1785, a boarding-school for young
gentlemen was commenced in Nazareth Hall; and
in the inn its visiting patrons found a temporary
Mr. Rice deceased at Bethlehem, in August of
The fourth landlord in the succession was John
Kremser, a native of Nazareth, but at the time of
his appointment, a member of the Economy at
Christian's Spring. Having married Ann Mary
Peischer in March of 1790, he thereupon under-
took the control of the house, and remained its re-
sponsible head for upwards of ten years. But in
Jfjf A Red Rose from the Olden Time.
that interval he lost his wife. He next married
Ann Sybilla Beck, in February of 1793. Mr.
Kremser deceased at Bethlehem, in November of
John Lewis Roth, Mr. Kremser's successor, con-
ducted the affairs of the inn, in the interval be-
tween October of 1800, and October of 1808. Mr.
Roth was the first child of white parents born
within the borders of the state of Ohio, he seeing
the light of day on the 4th of July, 1773, at the
Gnadenhutten mission, on the Tuscarawas branch of
the Muskingum. In 1785 he was a pupil at Nazareth
Hall. His subsequent career is partially obscure;
but he was a resident of the Moravian settlement
at Hope, Warren County, New Jersey, when he
was tendered the position of landlord at Nazareth.
Mr. Roth deceased at Bath, Northampton County,
Pa., in September of 1841.
On the 27th October, 1808, Joseph Rice, a son
of the third landlord, and Ann Salome, a daughter
of the missionary John Heckewelder, his wife, were
installed at the inn. They conducted its concerns
for upwards of two years. Mr. Rice deceased at
Bethlehem, in 1827.
John S. Haman and Sarah, m. n. Schmick, his
wife, were host and hostess at our inn, between
June of 181 1, and March of 1836, presiding over
its fortunes, therefore, for almost a quarter of a
A Bed Rose from the Olden Tvn%e. 4^
century. Hence Mr. Haman was the landlord par
excellence of the Nazareth Inn. He deceased at
that place in February of 1866, in the seventy-
ninth year of his age.
The landlords of this house up to 1836, without
exception, were members of the Moravian Church.
During the ensuing sixteen years, however, it was
let to gentlemen who were not members of that
Society, and in 1835, it was sold to Peter Best.
William Craig was landlord between April of
1836 and April of 1842. Him followed Daniel
Riegel, who resigned in favor of Peter Best, in
April of 1852. Best, as has been stated, bought
the house. Between 1854 and 1868, Edward Sieg-
fried, Henry Whitesell, Richard Whitesell, Garnet
and Leidy, and George Hager, followed in rapid
succession. And finally, in the last mentioned year,
the old Nazareth Inn was taken by Jesse Billheimer,
the present popular incumbent.
46 j1 Red Rose from the Olden Time.
Containing notices supplementary to the preceding historical sketch.
Francis and George Clevel. Francis, the older of the two brothers,
was born 27th September, 1720, at Auerbach, in Baden Durlach.
While on shipboard he was redeemed by a German farmer, on whose
plantation in Oley, Berks county, he passed his servitude. Having
married Salome Kichline in 1746, he disposed of his cabin set in
among the Oley Hills, and with his wife and infant daughter, Magda-
lene, removed to the wilds of Northampton county, locating on the
Lehietan, or Hakijannecke, about two miles north from Nazareth. The
site of his house is pointed out about one mile southeast from the
Douglass Slate Quarry, in Bushkill township. Here he deceased 24th
January, 1798. Three sons, John, Francis, and Nathaniel, twenty-
eight grand-children and one great-grand-child survived the venerable
George, his brother, was born i8th November, 1726, at Auerbach,
and deceased at Schoeneck, 6th May, 1793. He was the father of
nine sons and three daughters. Daniel, one of the nine, and father of
the aged Mr. Philip Clevel of Schoeneck, was born in the Whitefield
House, in February of 1756, while his parents were refugees at
The Moravian ministers settled at that place, preached statedly in
Francis Clevel's house, on the Bushkill, in the interval between the
A Red Rose from the Olden Time. 47
spring of 1755 and the autumn of 1762. Subsequently, the Clevels
attended divine worship in the chapel at Schceneck, and united with
the Moravians. That quaint old building, high-roofed and girt with
low porches, which hangs on the declivity of the hill as you go down
to the Bushkill on your way to Bushkill Center, popularly called '* Das
Schweitzer Haus," was built by Francis Clevel, Jr., circa 1776.
Ann Margaret, wife of Albrecht Klotz, deceased at Nazareth in June
of 1758. Lewis, h.h brother, was attached to the Moravians as early
as 1745, and was then a resident of Macungy, his farm lying adjacent
to the Moravian property in Salisbury township. Subsequently, and
for many years, Lewis Klotz was a Justice of the Peace in Northamp-
ton county. His children were placed at Moravian schools. Jasper
Payne, in 1742 enrolled in the Moravian Society in London, as
cheesemonger and wine-cooper, corner of Queen street and Watling
street, St, Antholines, — but, in 1746, accountant for the "Bethlehem
Economy," has left the following items on record. " August I i«th,
1746, Lewis Klotz's child died at Herzer's last Tuesday was seven-
night, being the 5th of August." And, "May 24th, 1747, Received
of Lewis Klotz towards paying of his children's board and schooling :
£. s. d.
3 Cows, . . . . . 9 — ^-
■2. Calves, . . . . . — 10 —
1 Mare and a little colt with a bell
on the mare . . . . 7 — —
I Cow-bell . . I . . — 5 —
16 15 —
48 A Red Rose from the Olden Ttine.
Gottlieb Demuth was born in 1715, in Radelsdorf in Bohemia,
whence he and others of his family emigrated to Saxony and became
attached to the Moravians at Herrnhut. In 1736 he was sent with
a colony to Georgia. In June of 1737 he came to Pennsylvania,
settled first among the Metuchen Hills, and next at Bethlehem. He
deceased at Schoeneck in October of 1776. His house stood a short
quarter of a mile south of The Rose, on the Minisink road.
The Volcks. The ancestor of the Volcks, whose family-tree, prior
to 1750, overshadowed a goodly portion of Allemsngel, now- Lynn
township, Lehigh county, was Andries Volck, born near Worms in
1678. He and Ann Catharine his wife, and sons and daughters, be-
longed to a company of fifty-two German Protestants, whom, with
their minister, one Joshua Kocherthal, Queen Anne was graciously
pleased to send to New York and settle at her own expense, in the
autumn of 1708. They pitched their tents first on Quassek creek
(now Chambers' creek, near Newburg), in the Highlands, at a spot
called by the Dutch " De Dans-Kammer. " Thence the Volcks re-
moved to Allemaengel, circa 1735. Old Andries deceased there in
September of 1747, the father of eleven children, of whom, Andrew,
Charles, Jacob and George, the surviving sons, in due course of time,
became the heads of prosperous families,
Philip C. Bader. The cittern with which Mr. Bader (as he tells us
in his miniature epic), was wont to beguile the tedious hours of long
weeks at sea, may be seen in the collection of relics belonging to the
Moravian Historical Society. From the father the sounding shell
A Bed Rose from the Olden Time.
passed into the hands of the daughter — the same Julia Bader who,
while an inmate of the Single Sisters' House at Bethlehem, assisted in
embroidering a banner for Pulaski^ at the time the General was recruit-
ing his immortal legion in Northampton and Berks.
Specified account of the expenses incurred in erecting the
Nazareth Inn, in 1771.
I. For work done by the Economy at Christian's Spring — viz. :
£ s. d.
For 509 days' carpentering, felling and squaring timber, blocking
up, laying floors, &c., @ 2S. 6d.,
" 57 days' board for the carpenters, (c
" 452 breakfasts and suppers, @ yd.,
" hauling stone and timber,
" hauling 44 logs to the saw-mill,
" sawing, ......
IS. per day,
19 5 S
136 2 u
2. For work done by, and for board provided for workmen from else-
For digging cellar, . . . .
" quarrying stone, .
" hauling stone,
" hauling stone and timber.
" carpentering and blocking up.
" hod-carriers and day-laborers,
" carpenters' fine work, .
" blacksmiths' work.
" board and whiskey,
A Red Rose fram the Olden Time.
For 17, 150 bricks, @. 30s. per m., 25
" 8,807 feet of pine boards.
" a boxes of glass, .
" 2 iron stoves,
" work done at the stoves.
" 15 locks, ....
" hair for mortar.
" clapboards, ....
" shovels, hoes, &c.,
" logs from the vt^oods,
" nails, .....
" plank for stairway,